HAProxy config tutorials

HTTP rewrites

Use the http-request and http-response configuration directives to rewrite HTTP requests and responses. You can place them into a frontend or backend section.

Rewrite requests Jump to heading

Use the http-request configuration directives to rewrite HTTP requests. You can place them into a frontend or backend section. Use them to rewrite requests sent from clients before the load balancer forwards them to a backend server. The server will see something different than what the client sent.

Change the HTTP request method Jump to heading

Use http-request set-method to change the method (e.g. GET, POST, PUT) on a request before relaying it to a backend server. In the example below, we change GET requests made to the /login URL path to be POST requests:

haproxy
frontend www
bind :80
acl url_login path_beg -i /login
http-request set-method POST if METH_GET url_login
use_backend webservers
haproxy
frontend www
bind :80
acl url_login path_beg -i /login
http-request set-method POST if METH_GET url_login
use_backend webservers

As another example, turn a GET into a POST if there is data in the body of the request by checking the Content-Length header:

haproxy
frontend www
bind :80
acl body_has_data req.hdr_val(Content-Length) gt 0
http-request set-method POST if METH_GET body_has_data
use_backend webservers
haproxy
frontend www
bind :80
acl body_has_data req.hdr_val(Content-Length) gt 0
http-request set-method POST if METH_GET body_has_data
use_backend webservers

Add a header Jump to heading

Use http-request add-header to add a new HTTP header to a request before relaying it to a backend server. In the example below, we add an X-Forwarded-For header containing the client IP address:

haproxy
frontend www
bind :80
http-request add-header X-Forwarded-For %[src]
use_backend webservers
haproxy
frontend www
bind :80
http-request add-header X-Forwarded-For %[src]
use_backend webservers

Going further, you can add a condition that first checks whether the X-Forwarded-For header exists and only add it if it does not:

haproxy
frontend www
bind :80
acl h_xff_exists req.hdr(X-Forwarded-For) -m found
http-request add-header X-Forwarded-For %[src] unless h_xff_exists
use_backend webservers
haproxy
frontend www
bind :80
acl h_xff_exists req.hdr(X-Forwarded-For) -m found
http-request add-header X-Forwarded-For %[src] unless h_xff_exists
use_backend webservers

Set a header Jump to heading

Use http-request set-header to add a new header or overwrite it if it already exists. In the example below, we overwrite any existing X-Forwarded-For header with one containing the client’s IP address by referencing the src fetch method:

haproxy
frontend www
bind :80
http-request set-header X-Forwarded-For %[src]
use_backend webservers
haproxy
frontend www
bind :80
http-request set-header X-Forwarded-For %[src]
use_backend webservers

In the next example, we change the Host header when traffic is sent to the maintenance backend:

haproxy
backend maintenance
http-request set-header Host maintenance.domain.com
# server lines...
haproxy
backend maintenance
http-request set-header Host maintenance.domain.com
# server lines...

Delete a header Jump to heading

Use http-request del-header to remove an HTTP header from a request before relaying it to a backend server. In the example below, we delete any existing X-Forwarded-For header:

haproxy
frontend www
bind :80
http-request del-header X-Forwarded-For
use_backend webservers
haproxy
frontend www
bind :80
http-request del-header X-Forwarded-For
use_backend webservers

In the next example, we delete all Cookie headers before sending the request to the backend servers, which in this case is a pool of cache (Varnish) servers:

haproxy
backend b_caches
acl at_least_one_cookie req.cook_cnt() gt 0
http-request del-header Cookie if at_least_one_cookie
# server lines...
haproxy
backend b_caches
acl at_least_one_cookie req.cook_cnt() gt 0
http-request del-header Cookie if at_least_one_cookie
# server lines...

Replace a header by using a regular expression Jump to heading

Use http-request replace-header to capture the entire value of a header by using a regular expression and then replace that value with a new one. You can use this technique to add data to a header, as in the example below, where we add a new IP address to the X-Forwarded-For header before relaying it to a backend server:

haproxy
frontend www
bind :80
acl h_xff_exists req.hdr(X-Forwarded-For) -m found
http-request replace-header X-Forwarded-For (.*) %[src],\1 if h_xff_exists
use_backend webservers
haproxy
frontend www
bind :80
acl h_xff_exists req.hdr(X-Forwarded-For) -m found
http-request replace-header X-Forwarded-For (.*) %[src],\1 if h_xff_exists
use_backend webservers

We use a regular expression capture group to capture the whole, existing value. Then, we add the new IP address to the beginning. We get the IP address with the src fetch method. This updates the string below…

text
X-Forwarded-For: 192.168.100.1, 10.0.0.2
text
X-Forwarded-For: 192.168.100.1, 10.0.0.2

…to become this one (considering the client’s IP is 172.16.0.2):

text
X-Forwarded-For: 172.16.0.2, 192.168.100.1, 10.0.0.2
text
X-Forwarded-For: 172.16.0.2, 192.168.100.1, 10.0.0.2

Replace part of a header by using a regular expression Jump to heading

Use http-request replace-value to capture part of a header’s value by using a regular expression and then replace that part with a new one. In the example below, we capture the Host header’s value up to the first colon. We then strip off the colon and port, if any:

haproxy
frontend www
bind :80
http-request replace-value Host (.*):.* \1
use_backend webservers
haproxy
frontend www
bind :80
http-request replace-value Host (.*):.* \1
use_backend webservers

This updates the string below…

text
Host: www.domain.com:80, static.domain.com:8080
text
Host: www.domain.com:80, static.domain.com:8080

…into the following one:

text
Host: www.domain.com, static.domain.com
text
Host: www.domain.com, static.domain.com

In cases where a header has multiple values, they are expected to be separated by a comma. The load balancer looks for commas and applies the replacement to each value it finds.

Set the URL path Jump to heading

Use http-request set-path to change the requested URL path before relaying it to a backend server. Below, we change the URL path for JPG images so that it begins with /images/, but only if not already set:

haproxy
frontend www
bind :80
acl p_ext_jpg path_end -i .jpg
acl p_folder_images path_beg -i /images/
http-request set-path /images/%[path] if !p_folder_images p_ext_jpg
use_backend webservers
haproxy
frontend www
bind :80
acl p_ext_jpg path_end -i .jpg
acl p_folder_images path_beg -i /images/
http-request set-path /images/%[path] if !p_folder_images p_ext_jpg
use_backend webservers

This changes the requests below…

text
GET /images/flower.jpg HTTP/1.1
GET /daisy.jpg HTTP/1.1
text
GET /images/flower.jpg HTTP/1.1
GET /daisy.jpg HTTP/1.1

…into the following ones, respectively:

text
GET /images/flower.jpg HTTP/1.1
GET /images/daisy.jpg HTTP/1.1
text
GET /images/flower.jpg HTTP/1.1
GET /images/daisy.jpg HTTP/1.1

Set the query string Jump to heading

Use http-request set-query to change the requested URL’s query string. You can use the query fetch method to get the current query string value. Then use the regsub function to replace the first occurrence of a given substring. In the example below, we replace the string %3D with = in the query string. The third parameter is set to g, which applies the replacement to all occurrences within the string:

haproxy
frontend www
bind :80
http-request set-query %[query,regsub(%3D,=,g)]
use_backend webservers
haproxy
frontend www
bind :80
http-request set-query %[query,regsub(%3D,=,g)]
use_backend webservers

You can also use the urlp fetch method to get one of the query string’s parameters. Below, we reorder the parameters in the query string to ensure that the user parameter comes before the group parameter:

haproxy
frontend www
bind :80
http-request set-query user=%[urlp(user)]&group=%[urlp(group)]
use_backend webservers
haproxy
frontend www
bind :80
http-request set-query user=%[urlp(user)]&group=%[urlp(group)]
use_backend webservers

This changes the request below…

text
GET /test.php?group=admin&user=foo HTTP/1.1
text
GET /test.php?group=admin&user=foo HTTP/1.1

…into the following one:

text
GET /test.php?user=foo&group=admin HTTP/1.1
text
GET /test.php?user=foo&group=admin HTTP/1.1

Set the URI Jump to heading

Use http-request set-uri to rewrite the entire URI string of an HTTP request, including its HTTP scheme, authority, path, and query string. In the example below, we create one URL for HTTP and another for HTTPS when forwarding traffic to a proxy server:

haproxy
backend b_squid
acl https ssl_fc
http-request set-uri https://%[req.hdr(Host)]%[path]?%[query] if https
http-request set-uri http://%[req.hdr(Host)]%[path]?%[query] unless https
# servers list...
haproxy
backend b_squid
acl https ssl_fc
http-request set-uri https://%[req.hdr(Host)]%[path]?%[query] if https
http-request set-uri http://%[req.hdr(Host)]%[path]?%[query] unless https
# servers list...

This changes the request below…

text
GET /test.php?group=admin&user=foo HTTP/1.1
Host: www.domain.com
text
GET /test.php?group=admin&user=foo HTTP/1.1
Host: www.domain.com

…into this one if the user connected over HTTP:

text
GET http://www.domain.com/test.php?group=admin&user=foo HTTP/1.1
text
GET http://www.domain.com/test.php?group=admin&user=foo HTTP/1.1

…or into this one if the user connected over HTTPS:

text
GET https://www.domain.com/test.php?group=admin&user=foo HTTP/1.1
text
GET https://www.domain.com/test.php?group=admin&user=foo HTTP/1.1

Rewriting anywhere in the request using regexes Jump to heading

Deprecated feature

This feature was removed in:

  • HAProxy 1.9
  • HAProxy Enterprise 1.9r1
  • HAProxy ALOHA 11.0

The legacy statements reqrep and reqirep are still useful in cases not yet covered by the http-request directives.

  • reqrep applies a regex to each line of the request buffer in a case-sensitive manner.
  • reqirep is case insensitive.
text
reqrep <search> <replace> [<cond>] reqirep <search> <replace> [<cond>]
reqirep <search> <replace> [<cond>] reqirep <search> <replace> [<cond>]
text
reqrep <search> <replace> [<cond>] reqirep <search> <replace> [<cond>]
reqirep <search> <replace> [<cond>] reqirep <search> <replace> [<cond>]

This directive needs a regular expression to <search> the content to replace, a regular expression <replace> to apply the modification , and an optional <condition> to apply to this rule.

This feature uses PCRE compatible regular expressions.

Below, we replace /jpg/ with /images/ in the URL path:

haproxy
frontend www
bind :80
reqrep ^([^ ]*) /jpg/(.*) 1 /images/2
use_backend webservers
haproxy
frontend www
bind :80
reqrep ^([^ ]*) /jpg/(.*) 1 /images/2
use_backend webservers

Next, we rewrite the Host header from static.domain.com to www.domain.com:

haproxy
frontend www
bind :80
acl h_static hdr(Host) -m beg static.domain.com
reqirep ^Host: static.domain.com Host: www.domain.com if h_static
use_backend webservers
haproxy
frontend www
bind :80
acl h_static hdr(Host) -m beg static.domain.com
reqirep ^Host: static.domain.com Host: www.domain.com if h_static
use_backend webservers

Rewrite responses Jump to heading

Use the http-response configuration directives to rewrite HTTP responses before they are sent back to clients. You can place them into a frontend or backend section. The client will see something different than what the server sees.

Add a header Jump to heading

Use http-response add-header to add a header to the response before relaying it back to the client. In the example below, we add an X-Via header containing the hostname of the current load balancer server processing the traffic:

haproxy
frontend www
bind :80
http-response add-header X-Via %[env(HOSTNAME)]
use_backend webservers
haproxy
frontend www
bind :80
http-response add-header X-Via %[env(HOSTNAME)]
use_backend webservers

Set a header Jump to heading

Use http-response set-header to change the current value of a header. In the example below, we give the Server header the value webserver, which can be useful for hiding the true name of the server:

haproxy
frontend www
bind :80
http-response set-header Server webserver
use_backend webservers
haproxy
frontend www
bind :80
http-response set-header Server webserver
use_backend webservers

Delete a header Jump to heading

Use http-response del-header to remove a header. Below, we delete several headers that are set by Varnish:

haproxy
backend b_static
http-response del-header X-Varnish
http-response del-header X-Varnish-Cache
http-response del-header X-Varnish-Server
http-response del-header X-Cache
# servers list...
haproxy
backend b_static
http-response del-header X-Varnish
http-response del-header X-Varnish-Cache
http-response del-header X-Varnish-Server
http-response del-header X-Cache
# servers list...

Replace a header by using a regular expression Jump to heading

Use http-response replace-header to change a header by using a regular expression. Below, we update the Cookie header named JSESSIONID, which was set by the server, with the Secure flag if the client-side connection is ciphered:

haproxy
frontend www
bind :80
acl https ssl_fc
acl secured_cookie res.cook(JSESSIONID),lower -m sub secure
http-response replace-header Set-Cookie (.*) "\1; Secure" if https !secured_cookie
use_backend webservers
haproxy
frontend www
bind :80
acl https ssl_fc
acl secured_cookie res.cook(JSESSIONID),lower -m sub secure
http-response replace-header Set-Cookie (.*) "\1; Secure" if https !secured_cookie
use_backend webservers

We use a regular expression capture group to capture the whole, existing value. Then, we add the new flag to the end, after a semi-colon. This assumes that the server sets up a single cookie. HTTP RFC specifies that the comma , character is a header field delimiter.

Replace part of a header by using a regular expression Jump to heading

Use http-response replace-value to capture part of a header’s value by using a regular expression and then replace that part with a new one. In the example below, we insert a Secure flag on each cookie set up by the server:

haproxy
frontend www
bind :80
http-response replace-value Set-Cookie (.*) \1;\ Secure
use_backend webservers
haproxy
frontend www
bind :80
http-response replace-value Set-Cookie (.*) \1;\ Secure
use_backend webservers

In cases where a header has multiple values, they are expected to be separated by a comma. The load balancer looks for commas and applies the replacement to each value it finds.

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